STEP BY STEP TO MODEL 31
(Is this already the Theory of Everything?)
It was shown that atoms are not at the lowest level of the organization of matter. It was presented that, at the subatomic level, there is the world of energy quanta, when at the bottom of the organization of matter, there is dark energy. Emerging from the world of dark energy, it was shown how energy quanta come into being and how they are constructed, how energy quanta transform into electrons and positrons, how electrons and positrons form a proton, how protons and electrons (neutralised protons) form an atom. Based on the above, on the basis of classical physics, most phenomena found in the macro- and the microworld were explained. It was shown that the lack of knowledge on the presence of subatomic and subquantum level of the organization of matter gives rise to difficulties in explaining the above mentioned phenomena, which resulted in the creation of some physics alternative to the classical physics (relativistic physics, quantum physics, particle physics called the Standard Model), which are contrary to the classical physics and to each other.
Table of Contents
- The formation mechanism of the energy quanta
- The structure and physical properties of the energy quanta
- The mechanism of the ”mass formation”
- The mechanism of formation and the structure of the electron and positron
- The structure of the proton and neutron
- How is gravity formed?
- The structure of the atomic nucleus
- The structure of the atom
- The valid laws in the quanta world
- The structure of the microworld
” The string theory has a chance to become the universal theory of the Universe; it will combine all the known forces in nature, including gravitation. It postulates the existence of microscopic objects which are made of one basic matter, these could be imagined as strings coiled in a particular way. These strings vibrate with specifically defined frequencies. The indication of these vibrations are all the known forces and particles in the Universe. Strings are stretchable (non-point) objects. Strings interact with each other and can form into bigger objects when their ends meet”.
May the following be the confirmation of the above.
1. The formation mechanism of the energy quanta.
In this chapter the starting point for the further considerations will the commonly known fact that the Universe is filled with some kind of energy which is now referred to as dark energy. Its existence was pointed out in the latest Space research and it was said that it constitutes about 68% of the whole Universe energy.
Moreover, one assumption has been accepted.
An atom is made of nucleus and electrons which are fixed in some particular distances from the nucleus.
Only this concept of the structure of atoms guarantees the sameness of atoms and guarantees the recurrence of physical and chemical properties of all the atoms of a given element.
Each concept referring to atoms with electrons moving around the nucleus does not guarantee the same properties of a given element since at that moment there will be as many different arrangements of electrons in atoms as there are atoms of a given element.
As for the structure which keeps the electrons in particular distances from the nucleus, it will be presented in the following chapters of this work where the internal structure as well as the physical properties of an electron, proton, nucleus and atom will be discussed.
It is known that atoms are in constant motion and they move at a high speed colliding with one another.
Let us consider what happens with an atom at the moment of collision.
At the moment of collision the components of atom (the nucleus and electrons) are precipitated out of the state of equilibrium. After the collision they bounce from each other and then inevitably move towards the next collision.
Let us consider what happens with the atom in the time between the collisions.
Thus at the time the atom returns to the state of equilibrium. However, this return is not a single act. Because of the occurrence of inertia, the electron passes the zero point and bends the other way (now significantly less), subsequently, it goes back to the state of equilibrium. Hence the atom regains its natural shape. Nevertheless, a moment later a new collision takes place and it starts again. Hereby the normal state of atom is the seemingly unnatural state of constantly vibrating electrons. The vibrating electrons perform two motions simultaneously. Vibrational motion which is suppressed in the atom and progressive motion along with the atom as the whole.
An electron, which performs the vibrational suppressed motion in the atom and the progressive motion together with the atom, with the use of its active end (which will be discussed in more details along with the internal electron structure) produces a field line (a string) out of dark energy and gives it a particular shape shown in Figure 1. This way the energy quantum is formed.
The quantum of energy is a field line (a string of energy) which reproduces the vibrational suppressed motion of an electron in the atom, which occurs between one and another collision of the atom.
The field line (the string of energy) produced out of dark energy by one electron and the energy quantum produced out of this string by this electron are real, material beings which exist physically, just like an electron, proton, nucleus, and atom.
Putting it figuratively, the energy string is like an elastic part of a ‘steel wire’ whilst the energy quantum is a special, two-dimensional, flat, wavy spring formed out of this wire by an electron vibrating after a collision. As shown in Fig. 1, the previously described quantum looks like a piece of flat transverse wave. It has an amplitude (A) and it has a wavelength (d). Thus the real existent energy quantum is an independently existing, finite particle, corpuscle.
The given concept of the energy quantum is not a breakthrough. In March 1905 Albert Einstein published a study including the idea which was used to explain the photoelectric effect;
[…] the energy of light beam from a point source does not decompose continuously in expanding volume, but it consists of limitless number of energy quanta which are located in points of space, they move without division and can be generated only as a whole.
The energy quantum generated by a vibrating electron becomes detached from the electron, then it reaches the speed of 299792,458 km/s and leaves the atom as a corpuscle – a flat, corrugated, two-dimensional vibrating spring.
The presented new approach to the issue almost instantly explains the physical phenomenon of the microworld, namely the thermal radiation of bodies.
Each body showing a temperature higher than the absolute zero emits electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, it can be said that the radiation is made up of energy quanta constantly generated in dark energy by electrons vibrating in an atom.
This approach of the issue enables answering the so far troublesome question, namely why all the bodies in the Universe endlessly emit electromagnetic radiation whilst not losing their weight at the same time?
The quantum is made of materially existing energy string, which means that the presented above quanta structure theory is the string theory.
The introduced formation mechanism of energy quanta presents the first steps in the evolution of dark energy. Two-dimensional springs and energy quanta are generated from the lines and energy strings which have been generated from one-dimensional pieces of dark energy. The process is illustrated in Fig. 2.
2. The structure and physical properties of the energy quanta.
The previous chapter finishes when the energy quantum produced by an electron leaves the atom. This quantum does not disappear, it moves to the quanta world.
PARALLELLY TO THE WORLD OF ATOMS, THERE EXISTS THE WORLD OF ENERGY QUANTA.
Quanta fill the whole Universe. They penetrate through the body mass and they are where no bodies exist. They are absolutely independent from the mass. Each body is made of atoms and of energy quanta filling in the space between atoms.
Ubiquitous quanta are in constant, chaotic motion. Whilst being in the chaotic motion the quanta continually collide with one another and in the time between the collisions they oscillate, pulsate, vibrate with a specific frequency, exactly as postulated in the string theory. The constant motion of quanta is caused and sustained by dark energy. It happens in the break between two collisions of quanta, when dark energy particles do not allow to reduce the speed of quanta, keeping it at a constant level of 299792458 m/s.
The energy quantum is an elementary magnetic dipole.
Let us have a look at Figure 3, which shows the previously discussed energy quantum. This quantum is in the shape of a dipole. There are two poles which are of a significantly different structure. The arm of the S pole has a certain length and it vibrates at a certain frequency. The arm of the N pole has a different length and it vibrates at a different frequency. The poles of the quantum, vibrating at different frequencies, produce out of dark energy the lines of force and fields which cause the attraction between these poles.
As the result of quanta collisions, not only the N and S poles of quantum vibrate but also the quantum ‘amplitude vertices’ E and G pulsate at different frequencies. These oscillating points are also the source of the field lines and force lines (Fig. 4).
These lines are shifted in phase, they are straight and parallel and they run into the space in the opposite directions and do not attract (they are monopoles). The ‘force’ and ‘gauge’ of these of these lines depend on the frequency of vibration of amplitude vertices.
Vibrating at several different frequencies quantum elements produce out of dark energy the lines of force and fields. The world of quanta is also filled with the fields lines which are generated by these quanta. The field lines produced by quanta exist materially, just like quanta, electrons, protons, nuclei and atoms, which also exist materially.
The energy quantum illustrated above reminds a bar magnet that we are somehow familiar with. The elastic forces of the string, the quantum is made of, attempt to straighten it but the field lines of the N and S poles oppose the forces of elasticity and allow to keep the shape of quantum, they stabilise it.
A simple assumption that the quantum is a magnetic dipole enables us to explain the mechanism of spreading of electromagnetic waves in the ‘vacuum’, meaning the quanta world.
Energy quanta as magnetic dipoles attract each other, align one after the other, like a string of beads on a thread. That is how a beam, e.g. a light beam is created. The electrons of atoms generate photons at random but they leave the body in order, one after the other. What we have here is another compliance with the string theory predictions (strings interact each other, they can be combined into a long string). A light beam is a series of aligned one after the other energy quanta performing simultaneously the progressive motion, straight, and vibrational motion. Within this beam all the quanta keep their individuality (frequency of vibration). Since the poles of quanta magnetic dipoles ‘contact’ pointwise, the surface of their vibration can be set at any angle. The quanta structuring this beam vibrate radially in all directions. That is how the unpolarized light beam is created (Fig. 5a). If vibrational surfaces of all the quanta of a given beam are placed on the same surface, the quanta structuring this beam will vibrate only on one surface. This will be a polarized light beam (Fig. 5b).
Energy quanta perform an orderly, linear progressive motion and form the beam, only if there is a source of quanta. The beam exists only when it elongates. In order to be able to elongate, it must be connected with the source generating quanta. Constantly produced quanta are the substance for the constantly growing and elongating beam. If the beam is cut from the source of quanta (the shadow effect) or the source stops generating quanta (light bulb goes off), the driving force of the orderly progressive motion disappears. As a result, after a while the surrounding quanta ‘tear the beam apart’ into single quanta, thoroughly mix with them and reduce their tension (vibration frequency) to their level. It can be said that the beam is homogenized. If the light of a star reaches us, it means that at this point the star exists and it is the source of this light. The view that the light of the stars which have not existed for already billions of years reaches us seems to be wrong because the free quanta (the relic radiation) filling the whole Universe will completely destroy every ‘stray beam’ after some time.
The quantum of energy is the basic unit of heat.
All the atoms of the Universe constantly generate quanta from dark energy and emit them continuously to the world of quanta. We receive these emitted quanta as the heat radiation and we feel them as heat. Hence because quanta really exist, the heat is real too. The heat is a real being, it exists physically just like the atom that produces it. The heat emitted by the body is the quanta of energy produced by the atoms of this body.
The energy quantum being a compressed spring has a potential energy and tension.
Let us look at Fig. 6.
Figures a) and b) show the same quantum in two variants. Both variants of the quantum share the same feature. They contain the same portion of dark energy, field lines, strings of energy, all of which their poles are made of; they are of the same length. The further analysis of both quantum variants shows that as a spring it may be more or less compressed, it may have a different potential energy (tension), it may have a different length d. The quantum which has less d is a more compressed spring, it has more tension and vibrates at a higher frequency.
All quanta have constant kinetic energy (they have a constant speed), whilst the quantum potential energy is variable. A given quantum may have different potential energies, different tensions and after a collision it may vibrate at different frequencies. The quantum potential energy depends only on the concentration of quanta in a given space, in a given volume. Figuratively speaking, the quantum is a kind of a tuning fork vibrating at different frequencies, but always moving at the speed of 299792458 m/s.
The potential energies of energy quanta produced by a given body constitute on a macro scale to the phenomenon known as the temperature of the body. The temperature is an immanent feature of energy quanta, it does not exist without energy quanta. The heat and temperature can always exist without bodies, without atoms (see the so-called relic radiation). The heat is quanta, the temperature is the quantum tension, the temperature change is the change of quanta concentration, resulting in the change of quanta vibration frequency.
At this point, we can make some kind of unification. Currently, many types of energy quanta can be distinguished. These are:
- wireless radiation quanta,
- microwave radiation quanta,
- infrared radiation quanta,
- light radiation quanta,
- ultraviolet radiation quanta,
- X-ray quanta,
- gamma quanta.
It can be seen from the discussion above that the division is artificial. All of the above mentioned quanta differ only in the potential energies (temperature). Each subsequent quantum differs from the previous one in that it has a higher temperature. Therefore, the gamma quantum is the most ordinary quantum in the world which has a very, very high temperature and the wireless radiation quantum is also the most ordinary quantum in the world but it has a very, very low temperature. The same quantum, depending on the tension and the natural frequency of vibration, may be the quantum of each of the above mentioned types. (see Fig. 7).
In the Space, the radioactive source tells us that it has a temperature close to zero Kelvin degrees, and the body emitting gamma radiation tells us that it has an incredibly high temperature.
The process described above explains the phenomenon of dimming the stars with the increasing distance (the so-called redshift).
Close to a light source (e.g. stars), quanta have a specified potential energy and specified tension. The further from the star, the light beam quanta slowly become ‘decompressed’, they lose the potential energy, and their frequency of vibration decreases. In other words, with time (with the increasing distance), quanta structuring the star rays reduce their temperature, cool down, cool off. The entire spectrum of quanta structuring the light rays reduces its tension. In the visible light range it means “disappearing of quanta on the short side of the spectrum” (ultraviolet, violet) and the “appearance of quanta on the long side of spectrum” (far red, infrared).The weakening of the light of stars does not stop at the ‘redshift’. The light of more distant stars reaches us as the infrared waves and even more distant as the radio waves. The light of the remotest stars does not reach us at all since the tension of its quanta weakened so much that it has aligned itself with the tension of the cosmic quanta environment. It means that the Space has a limit of visibility, a kind of horizon, skyline. To see even more distant stars we need to ‘step out to meet them’.
The graphic illustration of the preceding considerations is shown in Fig. 8.
The ‘red shift’ described above is implemented during billions of years of a ray wandering through the Universe.
The same effect of ‘red shift’ (but much faster) occurs at the transition of the sunlight through the Earth’s atmosphere. In upper layers of the atmosphere quanta of the upper end of the spectrum of sunlight (UV) ‘cool down’ strongly (up to the blue colour of visible radiation), which is why the sky is blue, and in lower layers of the atmosphere the number of quanta of UV radiation is minimal. In upper layers of the atmosphere quanta of the lower end of the spectrum of sunlight (red colour radiation) ‘cool down’ to a colorless IR radiation, resulting in the increase in temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere (known as the Greenhouse effect). That is why the average temperature of the Earth’s surface instead of minus nineteen Celsius degrees is plus fifteen Celsius degrees.
Even more quickly than in the atmosphere, the ‘redshift’ is enforced when a ray of light goes through a simple, thin glass pane. How can we recognise it? In a greenhouse there is no ultraviolet light and there is the excess of infrared radiation, which strongly increases the temperature in the greenhouse. It means that the spectrum of the solar radiation has been redshift. The UV quanta reduced their potential energy (cooled down) to a violet colour, which is why they are absent in the greenhouse. The quanta of visible radiation (red colour) reduced their potential energy (cooled down) to the IR radiation quanta, which is why it has become very warm in the greenhouse. The redshift concerns all the ranges of solar radiation and that is why ultraviolet disappears from one end of the spectrum, and there is an excess of infrared at the other end of the spectrum.
The question arises. What is the cause of the redshift phenomenon, and what is the mechanism of this phenomenon?
It can be said that this phenomenon is the proof for the existence of the quanta world and the existence of the quantum gas. The light beams do not move in the vacuum. They wander in the quantum gas. In the first case, the quantum gas is the cosmic background radiation; in the second, this gas is the quanta generated by atomic components of the Earth’s atmosphere; in the third case, the quantum gas is the quanta that are generated by the atomic components of the glass. A light ray moving in the quantum gas feels resistance of the gas, and as a result, the quanta included in this ray gradually lose potential energy, reduce the vibration frequency, cool down. On a macro scale this is the redshift phenomenon. The quantum gas has a density, and the greater it is, the quicker the redshift takes place. Thus in the space it takes billions of years, and in the glass pane it is carried out in a split of a second. The quantum gas density not only ‘cools down’ the quanta, but also reduces their speed. Therefore, the speed of the light in the glass is lower than in the air. However, after passing through the glass, the quanta speed returns to the previous quantity, because the resistance of the quantum gas in front of and behind the glass pane is the same.
The redshift phenomenon, now regarded as the flagship proof of the so-called expansion of the Universe, in the light of the above is a false view.
The presentation of the quanta world as the quantum gas leads to the following discourse related to the temperature. If we increase the quanta concentration, the temperature rises. Hence a strong increase in the quanta concentration should lead directly to a strong increase in the temperature. The above conclusion is confirmed by two commonly known physical phenomena.
- a) The operation of the lens.
Parallelly running quanta, structuring the sunlight, become concentrated at one point behind the lens. This causes a rapid increase in the quanta concentration, this increase of concentration, in turn, results in a rapid increase in the quanta vibration frequency, which is a sharp increase in the body temperature (and a disaster is waiting to happen).
- b) Adiabatic compression of the gas.
We shall perform the following experiment. Let us place a portion of gas in a cylinder with a piston and rapidly compress it to hundreds of bars. While compressing the gas, we have also compressed the energy quanta of the gas. Compressed quanta mean their higher density, greater frequency of collisions and the result is a rapid, simultaneous increase in the gas temperature throughout the mass. In this experiment, we have compressed the gas permanently (it is trapped between the walls of the vessel) while the quanta have been compressed for a moment (the hot quanta freely mix with the cylinder wall quanta, they warm it and then escape to the outside of the cylinder). The gas cools down, becomes as cold as before the experiment although it is highly compressed and although the kinetic energy of its particles is much greater than the kinetic energy of the unpressurised gas particles. Given the opportunity, we have a proof that the kinetic energy of the body particles is not a measurement of the body temperature.
The real quantum is a combined, dual product. The real quantum consists of two quanta (two-dimensional springs) mutually connected and vertical to each other (see Fig. 9).
The difference is that their magnetic poles of the same sign are made of different amounts of dark energy and different lengths of energy strings. If the magnetic poles of the same sign of the quanta are made of different lengths of energy strings, it means that they vibrate at different frequencies, and this in turn means that they can be attracted to each other, hence may form combined quanta in a way shown in Fig. 9.
The combined quantum has a certain durability. If it collides with an obstacle with a sufficient force, it will decompose into two simple quanta, as shown in Fig. 12.
3. The mechanism of the “mass formation”.
From the previous chapter we know that:
– the energy quantum is a flat, two-dimensional spring and a magnetic dipole,
– the quantum as a corrugated spring constantly vibrates, oscillates and pulsates,
– the higher the quanta concentration, the higher the frequency of quanta collisions.
These three processes will help to explain the mechanism of the “mass formation”.
Let us assume that the concentration of energy quanta is constantly growing. If that happens, the quanta collision frequency increases, the time between one and another quanta collision is reduced, and that means that the quanta, springs are getting shorter and increasingly compressed. It is known that a flat, two-dimensional spring can not be compressed indefinitely. At some point, the forces stabilising the spring (elastic forces of the string) will turn out to be too weak and it will be deformed. The deformation is illustrated in Fig. 13.
This means that two identically formed energy quanta may have differently laid magnetic field lines and thus they may have different magnetic properties. In elementary particle physics such a phenomenon is known and it is called the spin.
The term spin (the angular momentum) has nothing to do with the particle rotation around its own axis. This is exactly what the present-day interpretation of the elementary particle spin is. The term spin is maintained as not to multiply the entities.
The deformed quantum, the spin quantum, has completely new properties.
- a) It is a three-dimensional creation. Apart from the length and the width it also has a third dimension which can be called the height or the depth.
- b) It is no longer a symmetrical ‘bar magnet’ but has become an asymmetrical ‘horseshoe magnet’.
- c) It has lost the ability to lengthen and shorten, it has lost the possibility to change the tension and vibrate with different frequencies, that is, on a macro scale it is no longer the temperature indicator.
- d) It can move at a variable speed lower than c, which means that its driving force is no longer dark energy, but its driving force is now the energy quanta.
All the above mentioned properties of the ‘deformed quantum’ are the properties of a particle which has a measurable mass. In the way described above the energy quantum becomes the mass particle. In the way described above we have moved smoothly from the energy quantum with an immeasurable mass, to the energy quantum with a measurable mass, while keeping in mind that both of these quanta are made of the same portion of dark energy and from the energy string of the same length.
The ‘mass’ properties of the energy quantum are due to the specific construction of this quantum. This is a straight, three-dimensional spin quantum. The asymmetric, three-dimensional ‘mass quanta’ are precipitated in pairs from the world of the symmetric, two-dimensional, complex, dual ‘non-mass quanta’, just as sediment is precipitated from solution.
Dark energy sets the energy quanta into motion.
The energy quanta set the ‘mass quanta’ into motion .
In the conclusion of this chapter, the last stage of the process of dark energy evolution should be added. The energy quantum is no longer a two-dimensional spring and a bar magnet. It becomes a three-dimensional spring and a horseshoe magnet. The three-dimensional quantum has become the mass quantum. The immanent feature of the mass quantum is the spin. The above considerations are illustrated in Fig. 15.
4. The mechanism of formation and the structure of the electron and positron.
If the combined quantum shown in Fig. 9 has a sufficiently high vibration frequency, then after a collision it breaks down into two straight quanta, as shown in Fig. 12, which simultaneously become the mass particles in the way shown above. These two straight quanta having the same mass in the modern physics are called the electron and the positron.
Each real quantum (dual, combined) is the precursor of the pair of elementary mass units (electron and positron).
Let us summarise the results of heretofore considerations relating to the formation of mass particles.
– Electron and positron are elementary mass particles.
– Electron and positron have the same mass.
– Electron and positron may occur in two forms with different spins.
– Electron and positron are formed only in pairs, they are precipitated from the quanta world, just as sediment is precipitated from solution.
– Electron and positron are elementary, asymmetric magnetic dipoles.
– In electron and positron the previously discussed field line E becomes the elementary electric charge (electrostatic monopoly). In the positron it is the elementary positive charge, in the electron it is the elementary negative charge.
– In electron and positron the previously discussed field line G becomes the elementary gravity charge (gravity monopoly). In the positron it is the elementary positive charge, in the electron it is the elementary negative charge. The graphical models of the discussed above electrons and positrons are presented in Figure 16.
Each electron and positron is the source of force lines of three types of fields. They always and everywhere generate the lines of the magnetic field, the electric field and the gravity field.
Therefore the forces of these fields are the subject to the same equation:
Dark energy sets the energy quanta into motion.
The energy quanta set electrons and positrons into motion.
5. The structure of the proton and neutron.
From the previous chapter we know that electrons and positrons are formed in pairs.
Let us look again at the models of electron and positron shown in Figure 16.
As we can see, these elementary mass units are made of poles. Therefore nothing stands in the way for them to combine with each other. There is only one condition. They can not approach each other too rapidly. Too rapid encounter of the electron and positron will make them quanta again. Firstly, the electron with the positron will ‘combine’ through the electric poles, because as we know, the electrical attraction forces are the greatest (Fig. 17).
The magnetic dipole of one positronium ‘combines’ with the magnetic dipole of the second positronium. Then the magnetic dipole of the second positronium ‘combines’ with the magnetic dipole of the third positronium. Subsequent positronia which combine in this way create a chain, and one positron is attached at the end. All of the above operations constitute the instruction for receiving a proton, the only permanent particle in the Universe, which is made of the electron-positron dipoles. The beginning of the proton chain structure (four positronia) is shown in Figure 18. The actual number of the positronia that the proton consists of will be presented further in the paper.
However, the formation of a proton does not run unconditionally. The above mentioned proton forming operations must run sufficiently fast because all the indirect particles on the way from the positronium to the proton are impermanent and have a specific, very short lifetime. At this point it becomes clear what physicists could not comprehend. How is it possible that the proton has the same charge as the electron, (in quantity), whilst having 1,837 times greater mass? Well, at one end of the proton, just like a small antenna, a positron is placed. Its electrostatic charge has been neutralized, but the magnetic poles are active. This pole gives the electrostatic charge to the whole proton. At the other end of the proton there is also a positron. This positron has neutralized electrostatic charge, but active magnetic poles. These poles give the magnetic moment to the whole proton. The poles of electrons and positrons in the proton almost contact each other (they can not connect because they vibrate at different frequencies, besides the connection of the poles would mean an infinitely great force of attraction, according to Coulomb’s law). This means that the forces combining electrons and positrons (alternately the forces of electric and magnetic attraction) are the possible maximum. In nature there are no larger fundamental interaction forces, therefore the proton has such a great permanence (the legends about which are being spread among intellectuals).
A proton has a chain structure. The links of this chain are positronia.
The experiment shows that protons can be broken down whilst colliding them with one another. After such a crash-test the proton breaks down into a colossal number of smaller, absolutely random elements, (physicists humorously call this type of experiment a rubbish collision). If a proton, for example, breaks down into average size parts, mesons will be created. If a proton is torn at the connection of the electrical charges, then mesons will be created and they will have positive and negative charges (e.g. pions ∏– ∏+ ). If it is torn at the connection of the magnetic dipoles, then electrically neutral mesons will be created (e.g. a pion ∏0 ).
Given the above, we can see that the ‘rubbish collision’ should lead to obtaining ‘an infinite number of elementary particles’. This is the case indeed. The larger and more powerful accelerators were created, the more elementary particles appeared. At the beginning there were three of them, then 100, then 300, now there are a few hundred thousand of them. It seems that this method of research leads to a dead end. The accelerators would have to be strong enough to break protons “into tiny pieces”, meaning positronia, which will instantly break up into the gamma quanta. Only then, physicists would realise what protons are made of. By the way, there already is a confirmation for this course of events. After the proton breakup resulting from the breakup pion ∏0 immediately breaks down into the gamma quanta.
If an active, electrical end of the proton (positron) is neutralised with the use of electron, then an electrically neutral proton which is now called a neutron will be formed (Fig. 19). This neutralised proton at its chain ends has elementary magnetic dipoles. These two dipoles give neutron a specific magnetic moment.
All the bodies having a mass are made of electrons and positrons.
Dark energy sets the energy quanta into motion.
The energy quanta set protons and neutrons into motion.
6. How is gravity formed?
Now it is an appropriate time to explain the riddle of gravity. Let us look again at the diagram of the proton structure shown in Figure 18. Let us consider how the gravitational poles are distributed in a proton. As we can see, they are thoroughly placed in pairs. The positive pole is always next to the negative pole and vice versa, the negative is next to the positive. What does it mean? This means that each proton, despite having two types of gravitational poles (attractive and repulsive), will only attract other protons. In this perfidiously simple manner, the two opposing forces were converted into a single force, the force of attraction. The positive and negative gravitational field lines are arranged along the proton chain alternately, they surround the chain from the outside creating a kind of tubular protective armor of the proton. This “armored tube” is made up of a certain number of alternately tightly arranged positive and negative gravitational field lines. The number of these lines definitely determines the proton chain length, since while there is no space for the further gravitational field lines in the tube, then there is no space for the further electron-positron dipoles in the proton chain. The graphic model showing the above considerations is presented in Fig. 20.
The above-presented proton structure shows that the proton is an elementary carrier of gravity. Free electrons and positrons, despite having the gravitational poles, can not be a source of gravity. A source of gravity is only ordered electrons and positrons, arranged in one and only way, namely the way shown above. As we can see in the Figure above, the pairs of poles of the connected magnetic dipoles of the positron and electron form a section of double helix, the same as the one which structures the DNA chain. The final pairs of magnetic poles of the helix (labelled as NS, SN, N, S) are the connection points of other nucleons constructing the atomic nucleus.
A proton is an elementary carrier of gravity.
Gravity is not a primary interaction. Gravity is an extremely simple combination of primary interactions, attraction and repulsion.
7. The structure of the atomic nucleus.
The analysis of graphic models of the proton and neutron shows that the ends of these particles are field-active.
One end of the proton is electrostatically active. It is an elementary positron electrostatic monopoly. The other end is magnetically active. It is the elementary positron magnetic dipole.
Both ends of the neutron are magnetically active. They are elementary magnetic dipoles. One of them is the elementary positron magnetic dipole (it derives from the proton from which the given neutron was formed. The other one is the elementary electron magnetic dipole (it derives from the electron which has neutralized the elementary positron electrostatic monopoly of the proton and made it a neutron).
A diagrammatic approach to the structure of proton and neutron is shown in Fig. 21.
What conclusions can be drawn from these models?
– A proton-neutron pair forms the deuterium nucleus.
– A pair of deuterium nuclei forms a helium nucleus.
– The successive helium nuclei, formed in a chain, generate the nuclei of elements with an even number of protons.
The nuclei of elements with an odd number of protons are ended with the deuterium nucleus.
– The nucleus made of the deuterium nuclei (of the same number of protons and neutrons) is the right nucleus of a given element.
– All the other nuclei of a given element (made of the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons) are the wrong nuclei, they are the isotopic nuclei of a given element.
– The atomic nucleus has a chain structure. The links of this chain are the alpha particles. These links ‘combine’ with each other by magnetic forces of the first and the last magnetic dipoles, which construct the nucleon double helix (see Fig. 23)
The components of the nucleus, the nucleons are held together with magnetic forces. The special strong interactions invented ad hoc, just for the clarification of the nucleus structure, do not exist.
– Let us consider the uranium nuclear chain (see Fig. 24).
Let us number the protons in it. Each number of protons can be subsequently assigned with the nucleus of a given element. And what can we see? We can see that in each nucleus of a given element there is a stored code of atomic nuclei of all the elements preceding it. This means that in the uranium nuclear chain, the code of atomic nuclei of all the elements of the periodic table is stored.
– Each chain can be divided into parts, so we can also divide into parts the atomic nucleus and thus receive the nuclei of other elements of lower atomic weight. This phenomenon constitutes the basis for the artificially induced chain reaction or the rare natural phenomenon called cluster decay. Successive detachment of the individual links of the nuclear chain (alpha particles) is known as the natural radioactivity.
If we initiate the breaking process of a link (helion) from the nuclear chain, then the neighbouring helions will assist this process with very powerful forces of electrostatic repulsion. However, if we attempt to combine a helion into the nuclei, the neighbouring helions will hinder this process with very powerful forces of electrostatic repulsion. That is why it is much easier for the alpha particle to leave the nucleus than to become its component.
– The presented models of atomic nuclei show that the right nuclei formed only from alpha particles (the nuclei of the same, even number of neutrons and protons) should not have the magnetic properties since their nucleons’ magnetic dipoles are completely neutralized. The reader can learn about the fact from any physics textbook.
– The presented models of atomic nuclei also show that the right nuclei having the deuterium nucleus as the final link of the chain (the nuclei of the same, odd number of neutrons and protons) should have the magnetic properties since their nucleons’ magnetic dipoles are not completely neutralized. The reader can learn about the fact from any physics textbook. Are not these the two successive powerful pieces of evidence of the validity of the atomic nucleus model outlined above?
– It is evident that in such a model of the nucleus, a given nucleon interacts only with its nearest neighbours, and the interactions between the nucleons have the saturation properties.
– As it has been shown previously, the right nucleus of a given element consists only of the deuterium nuclei, that is of the same number of protons and neutrons. All the other nuclei of the same number of protons but of a different number of neutrons are the wrong nuclei, the isotopic nuclei of a given element. The presented above graphical record of the atomic nucleus allows to show the structure of all the isotopic nuclei of elements present in the Universe. This concerns the isotopic nuclei that exist, which have ever been formed, and which can hypothetically be formed. Their number is currently estimated to a few thousand. A sample of these possibilities is shown in Fig. 25, which gives an example of the isotopic nuclei of hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, and krypton.
What comes as a surprise in the above is the fact that in the case of hydrogen, the right nucleus is the nucleus of deuterium, and the hydrogen and tritium nuclei are the isotopic nuclei of deuterium.
– The presentation of the nucleus as a developed chain is a simplification, so far it has been very useful for the demonstrative purposes. However, it seems that the natural state of the nucleus is a coiled chain. This coil is formed under the influence of the same forces that bind together the nuclear chain (alpha particles). The above is illustrated in Fig. 26.
– The right nucleus is permanent for small atomic numbers. The largest permanent right nucleus is a calcium-40 nucleus ( ). The successive nuclei begin to ‘absorb’ the neutrons and the longer they do so, the number of additional neutrons is higher. Iron has four of them, krypton has 12 of them, xenon 24, and uranium has as many as 54 of them. These neutrons look like ballast which unnecessarily strains the nucleus. It turns out that this, at first sight, pointless action has a deep meaning.
When the nucleus is small, the nuclear roll is short. Such nucleus is able to keep it. The large nucleus is the thick roll. Keeping it as a whole is difficult, therefore, it is strengthened with a strip of neutrons, which play the role of a ‘velcro’ tied around the nucleus and increasing its stability
An electron is not a sphere, a proton is not a sphere, an atomic nucleus is not a sphere, an atom is not a sphere. The inorganic microworld does not recognize a spherical shape. The inorganic microworld prefers a chain structure.
The organic microworld (proteins, sugars, fats, DNA) also prefers a chain structure. This means that there is no significant difference in the ‘philosophy’ of the animate and inanimate matter structure.
The model of the atomic nucleus shown above gives a graphic presentation of the structure of all (!!!) the nuclei of elements found in nature. It explains all (!) the known properties of atomic nuclei.
It provides new information about the atomic nucleus, that is:
– it introduces a definition of the right nucleus,
– it explains the difference between the right nucleus and the isotopic nucleus,
– it explains the way of connecting the nucleons in the nucleus,
– it explains the formation of the nuclei magnetic properties,
– it explains the role of the excess neutrons in the nucleus,
– it shows that the basic brick forming the nuclei of all the elements is the deuterium nucleus,
– it shows that the nucleus has a chain structure, and the links of this chain are the helium nuclei,
– it shows the breakdown mechanism of a given nucleus into the smaller nuclei,
– it shows that in the uranium nucleus there is a stored nuclei code of all the atoms of the periodic table.
8. The structure of the atom.
We have previously established that the nuclei protrude the ends of protons (positrons), which are evenly distributed, electrically active, and positively charged. These ends are placed centrally in the funnel-shaped protective proton tubes, which are made of the gravitational field’s force lines.
If within the operating range of this positron, an electron appears, it will start to get attracted and and pulled down inside the tube. The closer to the nucleus the electron appears, the greater the force of attraction will be, however, the funnel tube will simultaneously put increased resistance. At one point, the resistance of many lines of the gravitational field will become so great that it will balance the force of attraction of one electrostatic field line. The electron will stop at a certain distance from the nucleus. It will be stuck like a cork in a bottle, like a bung in a barrel. This is how an atom is formed – the electrostatic (!!!), highly permanent (!!!), entirely reproducible (!!!), nucleus-electron system.
A graphic model of the discussed above atom (hydrogen atom) is shown in Fig. 28.
Let us see if anything supports this model of the atom?
As we can see from this model, the energy of electron is entirely the potential energy.
The formula for the electron’s potential energy in the hydrogen atom is well known:
Even the model of argon atom shows that there is an incredible order and harmony in the structure of atoms. Moving along the spiral, from the outside to the inside of the nucleus, the electrons move away from it in a precisely defined order. The nearest to the nucleus is always a pair of electrons, one on the even and the other on the odd side. Subsequently, we can observe an explicit drop, that is the following electrons are already in a much greater distance from the nucleus. These following electrons are eight electrons (four on the even and four on the odd side of the nucleus) which systematically move away from the nucleus. Then there is a drop again and the following eight electrons move away from the nucleus as described previously.
In a given pair of protons the electron of the even proton is always in a greater distance from the nucleus than the electron of the odd proton. This principle applies to the atoms of all elements of the periodic table!!!
As it has been indicated above, we can theoretically construct models of atoms of all elements occurring in nature.
In the uranium atom the furthest electron from the nucleus is located at the distance of 2,3 x 10-10 (6,2 eV), while the electron nearest to the nucleus is located at the distance of 1,2 x 10-14 m (115606 eV). This means that in the uranium atom the last electron is almost 20000 times further away from the nucleus than the first electron.
– If we want to imagine an atom, it will be an unusual structure. Inside, there is the tiny rolled up proton-neutron nucleus, on its extension, on the two opposite sides, there are two (spiral-helical) electron beams attached to it. The electrons do not circle around the nucleus, form shells, subshells or clouds; in a given atom they are located in a precise distance. The electrons do not protect the nuclei against the collisions. On the contrary, the atoms collide only with the nuclei, their central parts. After a collision, located on the nuclei ‘poles’ electron beams are put in vibration, and as a result of these vibrations the energy quanta are generated. Dark energy corpuscles give these quanta the speed of 299792458 m/s and they leave the atom. One beam generates E (‘electric’) quanta, the second one generates H (‘magnetic’) quanta. Following their birth the above mentioned quanta ‘combine’ into combined quanta (Fig. 10), which in turn “combine” with each other to form the beams of “electromagnetic waves” (Fig. 11). An atom is a vibration generator, it is an oscillator generating quanta.
In Figure 29 we can see that in each atom the last electron, called a valence electron, is in a much greater distance from the nucleus than the others.
With these electrons we will do the following experiments.
We will take into consideration:
– the model of the right nucleus of a uranium atom (shown in Fig. 24), in which, as we know, all the atomic nuclei of all elements of the periodic table are coded.
– the presented above formula for the distance of the electron from the nucleus.
– the table presented below showing official, experimentally determined values of the first ionization energy of atoms of all elements of the periodic table.
|The electronic structure of the elements|
|5||B||Boron||(He) 2s2 2p||2P1/2||8,2980|
|6||C||Carbon||(He) 2s2 2p2||3P0||11,2603|
|7||N||Nitrogen||(He) 2s2 2p3||4S3/2||14,5341|
|8||O||Oxygen||(He) 2s2 2p4||3P2||13,6181|
|9||F||Fluorine||(He) 2s2 2p5||2P3/2||17,4228|
|10||Ne||Neon||(He) 2s2 2p6||1S0||21,5646|
|13||Al||Aluminum||(Ne) 3s2 3p||2P1/2||5,9858|
|14||Si||Silicon||(Ne) 3s2 3p2||3P0||8,1517|
|15||P||Phosphorus||(Ne) 3s2 3p3||4S3/2||10,4867|
|16||S||Sulfur||(Ne) 3s2 3p4||3P2||10,3600|
|17||Cl||Chlorine||(Ne) 3s2 3p5||2P3/2||12,9676|
|18||Ar||Argon||(Ne) 3s2 3p6||1S0||15,7596|
|21||Sc||Scandium||(Ar) 3d 4s2||2D3/2||6,5615|
|22||Ti||Titanium||(Ar) 3d2 4s2||3F2||6,8281|
|23||V||Vanadium||(Ar) 3d3 4s2||4F3/2||6,7463|
|24||Cr||Chrome||(Ar) 3d5 4s||7S3||6,7665|
|25||Mn||Manganese||(Ar) 3d5 4s2||6S5/2||7,4340|
|26||Fe||Iron||(Ar) 3d6 4s2||5D4||7,9024|
|27||Co||Cobalt||(Ar) 3d7 4s2||4F9/2||7,8810|
|28||Ni||Nickel||(Ar) 3d8 4s2||3F4||7,6398|
|29||Cu||Copper||(Ar) 3d10 4s||2S1/2||7,7264|
|30||Zn||Zinc||(Ar) 3d10 4s2||1S0||9,3942|
|31||Ga||Gallium||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p||2P1/2||5,9993|
|32||Ge||Germanium||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p2||3F0||7,8994|
|33||As||Arsenic||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p3||4S3/2||9,7886|
|34||Se||Selenium||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p4||3P2||9,7524|
|35||Br||Bromine||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p5||2P3/2||11,8138|
|36||Kr||Krypton||(Ar) 3d10 4s2 4p6||1S0||13,9996|
|39||Y||Yttrium||(Kr) 4d 5s2||2S1/2||6,2171|
|40||Zr||Zirconium||(Kr) 4d2 5s2||3F2||6,6339|
|41||Nb||Niobium||(Kr) 4d4 5s||6D1/2||6,7589|
|42||Mo||Molybdenum||(Kr) 4d5 5s||7S3||7,0924|
|43||Tc||Technetium||(Kr) 4d5 5s2||6S5/2||7,28|
|44||Ru||Ruthenium||(Kr) 4d7 5s||5F5||7,3605|
|45||Rh||Rhodium||(Kr) 4d8 5s||4F9/2||7,4589|
|47||Ag||Silver||(Kr) 4d10 5s||2S1/2||7,5763|
|48||Cd||Cadmium||(Kr) 4d10 5s2||1S0||8,9938|
|49||In||Indium||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p||2P1/2||5,7864|
|50||Sn||Tin||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p2||3F0||7,3439|
|51||Sb||Antimony||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p3||4S3/2||8,6084|
|52||Te||Tellurium||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p4||3P2||9,0096|
|53||I||Iodine||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p5||2P3/2||10,4513|
|54||Xe||Xenon||(Kr) 4d10 5s2 5p6||1S0||12,1298|
|57||La||Lanthanum||(Xe) 5d 6s2||2S1/2||5,5770|
|58||Ce||Cerium||(Xe) 4f 5d 6s2||1G4||5,5387|
|59||Pr||Praseodymium||(Xe) 4f3 6s2||4I9/2||5,464|
|60||Nd||Neodymium||(Xe) 4f4 6s2||5I4||5,5250|
|61||Pm||Promethium||(Xe) 4f5 6s2||6H5/2||5,58|
|62||Sm||Samarium||(Xe) 4f6 6s2||7F0||5,6436|
|63||Eu||Europium||(Xe) 4f7 6s2||8S7/2||5,6704|
|64||Gd||Gadolinium||(Xe) 4f7 5d 6s2||9D2||6,1501|
|65||Tb||Terbium||(Xe) 4f9 6s2||6H15/2||5,8638|
|66||Dy||Dysprosium||(Xe) 4f10 6s2||5I8||5,9389|
|67||Ho||Holmium||(Xe) 4f11 6s2||4I15/2||6,0215|
|68||Er||Erbium||(Xe) 4f12 6s2||3H6||6,1077|
|69||Tm||Thulium||(Xe) 4f13 6s2||2F7/2||6,1843|
|70||Yb||Ytterbium||(Xe) 4f14 6s2||1S0||6,2542|
|71||Lu||Lutecium||(Xe) 4f14 5d 6s2||2S1/2||5,4259|
|72||Hf||Hafnium||(Xe) 4f14 5d2 6s2||3F2||6,8251|
|73||Ta||Tantalum||(Xe) 4f14 5d3 6s2||4F3/2||7,5496|
|74||W||Tungsten||(Xe) 4f14 5d4 6s2||5D0||7,8640|
|75||Re||Rhenium||(Xe) 4f14 5d5 6s2||6S5/2||7,8335|
|76||Os||Osmium||(Xe) 4f14 5d6 6s2||5D4||8,4382|
|77||Ir||Iridium||(Xe) 4f14 5d7 6s2||4F9/2||8,9670|
|78||Pt||Platinum||(Xe) 4f14 5d9 6s||3D3||8,9587|
|79||Au||Gold||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s||2S1/2||9,2255|
|80||Hg||Mercury||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2||1S0||10,4375|
|81||Tl||Thallium||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p||2P1/2||6,1082|
|82||Pb||Lead||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2||3F0||7,4167|
|83||Bi||Bismuth||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3||4S3/2||7,2856|
|84||Po||Polonium||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4||3P2||8,4167|
|85||At||Astatine||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5||2P3/2||9.3|
|86||Rn||Radon||(Xe) 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6||1S0||10,7485|
|89||Ac||Actinium||(Rn) 6d 7s2||2S1/2||5,17|
|90||Th||Thorium||(Rn) 6d2 7s2||3F2||6,3067|
|91||Pa||Protactinium||(Rn) 5f2 6d 7s2||4K11/2||5,89|
|92||U||Uranium||(Rn) 5f3 6d 7s2||5L6||6,1941|
– From the above table we can read the value of the first ionization energy for a given element,
– On the basis of the formula r= we can calculate its distance from the nucleus
– On the following model of a uranium nucleus as a module, we place a valence electron in an appropriate distance from the corresponding proton, that is, for proton number 1 – the valence electron of deuterium (hydrogen), for proton number 2 – the valence electron of helium, for proton number 3 – the valence electron of lithium, and so on. The result of these actions is shown in Fig. 30.
Here are the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis.
The harmony in this model (hereinafter referred to as Model 31) lies in the fact that with the increase of atomic number, the valence electron of a given element changes its distance from the nucleus in a precisely defined manner, that is, it periodically moves away from the nucleus and then it approaches it. In this period, moving away from the nucleus of the last electron is powerful and single while the approach is spread out into two stages. This phenomenon occurs parallelly on both sides of the symmetry axis, that is, on the odd and even side of the protons. The above will be expanded in detail while considering each period shown in Fig. 31. Let us look at the period I.
In comparison to the electrons of deuterium and helium atoms, the valence electrons of lithium and beryllium are in a much greater distance from the nucleus. This is how the stage of increasing the distance of valence electrons from the nucleus ends in the first period. An atom of the next element of boron starts the approaching stage of valence electrons to the nucleus. Subsequently, on the other side, the valence electron of carbon atom approaches the nucleus, then even more symmetrically the electrons of nitrogen and oxygen approach it. This is where the first period of changing the distance from the valance electron to the nucleus ends, that is, the first cycle of giving the elements physical and chemical properties. Atoms of eight elements have participated in it (of atomic numbers from 1 to 8).
In the period II everything is carried out analogically. There are atoms of the next eight elements (of atomic numbers from 9 to 16). In comparison to the electrons of fluorine and argon, the valence electrons of sodium and magnesium are greatly far away from the nuclei, while the valence electrons of aluminum and silicon, phosphorus and sulfur symmetrically approach the nuclei. The period III looks significantly different from the previous two. However, this may be very misleading. Let us look at the second pair of this period (potassium and calcium). This pair is far away from the nucleus just as the second pair of atoms in the periods I and II. Now let us have a look at the last two pairs of the period III (gallium and germanium, arsenic and selenium). These pairs approach the nucleus in the same way as the last two pairs of the previous periods. Thus the idea of periods is maintained. The difference is that the second and third pairs of atoms have been separated and the resultant gap was filled with five pairs of atoms of additional elements (transition metals). That is why there are 18 elements (of atomic numbers from 17 to 34) in the period III. In the period IV the same actions take place. The second and third pairs of atoms of this period are separated and the space is filled with the second ten of the transition metals. This way the period IV contains 18 elements (of atomic numbers from 35 to 52). Now let us analyse the period V. The second pair (cesium, barium), like in all the previous periods, is far away from the nucleus. The last two pairs (thallium and lead, bismuth and polonium) gradually approach the nucleus like in all the previous periods.
Between the second and third pairs of the right period a gap has been formed, which like in the periods III and IV has been filled with the atoms of nine transition metals (from the hafnium to mercury). It needs to be highlighted that it is nine not ten. This tenth atom of the transition metals from the periods III and IV, in the period V has been replaced with fifteen atoms of metals called lanthanides. Yes, dear reader, fifteen lanthanides in the periodic table ‘pretend’ the atom of one element. They act as if they were ‘one, big, combined transition element’. The ionization energies of these elements are very alike. They all have very similar physical and chemical properties. In nature they are in a form of mixed minerals from which it is difficult to isolate pure elements. Thus the period V consists of 32 elements (of atomic numbers from 53 to 84). The period VI starts in the same way as the period V and it would be structured in the same way as the period V if there were more elements in the periodic table. Actinides would then play the role of ‘one, big, combined element’ in it. At this point we might ask a question. What is the meaning of this complexity in particular periods of atomic structure? The answer would be as follows. If all the periods of the periodic table consisted of 8 atoms (such as the first two), then there would have to be 12 periods. The presented model of atomic structure shows that in the sixth period the furthest away from the nucleus valence electrons are already very low in ionization potential (francium – about 4 V). Probably already in the seventh period the valence electron ionization energy would reach a value close to zero. In other words, if there were twelve periods, the valence electrons of atoms above the seventh period would already be so far away from their right protons that the force of attraction between these protons and electrons would be too low to keep them together. Therefore, with identical eight-atom periods, there would be only six of these periods.
From the above we can see that Model 31 is the otherwise recorded periodic table of elements. This table can be presented in a tabular format (Fig. 32)
How does it differ from the one which is currently applicable?
– The periodic table begins with the deuterium atom. This means that the second in name (deuterium) is really the first, and the first in name (protium, hydrogen) is not the first or even the second, it is only the isotope of deuterium and there is no place for the isotopes in the correct periodic table.
– Helium, the second element, no longer wanders on the periphery of the periodic table but it takes its right place which is next to the first element (the deuterium).
– In the periodic table above, there is no residual, diatomic first period. All the periods are identical, octoatomic. There are six periods (the sixth period is not finished).
The first elements in the subsequent periods form the first group of elements, the second elements in the subsequent periods form the second group, the third elements from the third group and so it repeats eight times,
– Hydrogen, namely deuterium is in the right place (among nonmetals, among gaseous elements). Among them it is the most non-metallic element, it is the most of the gas, it is the king of nonmetals. In the current periodic table, hydrogen, a model of nonmetals, lies in the most active group of metals, just like an ulcer.
– An unambiguous function was given to the noble gases. They are now a demarcation line, a wall separating the most active nonmetals from the most active metals. The king of metals (francium) takes the furthest place from the king of metals (hydrogen), namely deuterium (diagonally).
– The transition metals, lanthanides and actinides have been ‘hidden’ in the gaps inside the third, fourth, fifth and sixth period of the periodic table. These elements ‘stretch’ the last four periods of the periodic table.
– At present the periodic table contains more than 90 elements. It is clear that if it was not for this ‘trick’ with stretching the periods, the periodic table would contain only half, that is 48 elements.
– The full harmony of the corrected, tabular periodic table is disclosed when we glue together both ends of the table, and when rather than in a flat form we present it in a cylinder form. The tabular periodic table of elements is derivative in comparison to Model 31, it is its simplified record.
The field lines, the force lines, the energy strings are material creations, just like electrons, protons, atoms. Appropriately densely placed, they put resistance to the elementary material particles, electrons. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of construction of the electron ‘network’ of atoms.
In the structure of the atom all kinds of fields generated by the electrons and positrons have been used. These are the lines of the: electric field, magnetic field and gravitational field.
Each atom is made of exactly the same amount of matter and antimatter, that is, the same number of electrons and positrons. Therefore, any normal atom is electrically neutral. Hence everything made of atoms is electrically neutral.
It is not until the stage of the atom when gravity starts to work normally.
The gravitational interactions of electrons and positrons start to work normally only when, also included in electrons ans positrons but much stronger than them, electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions are completely neutralized inside the atom (proton and
The role of quanta in the world of atoms is the same as the role of dark energy in the quanta world. Quanta maintain the eternal, seemingly arising ‘out of nothing’ movement of atoms. They do it in such a way that in a break between the successive collisions of atoms they maintain their speed at the same level. The only difference is that the speed of atoms is not constant. It depends on the temperature (vibration frequency) of quanta and the mass of atoms.
Quanta give the collisions of atoms the nature of perfectly elastic collisions.
An atom is like a rolled up and string-tied ancient Egyptian papyrus. It can only be decrypted after it has been unrolled. The same but less grandiloquently – an atom is like a rolled up bamboo mat. Or quite prosaically – an atom is like a pancake.
9. The valid laws in the quanta world.
The first law of this world is the constant quanta speed law.
The constantly vibrating and colliding quanta, in a break between one and another collision, keep a constant speed.
V = c = 299792,458 km/s
It is done in such a way that in the break between two quanta collisions, dark energy does not allow to reduce the quanta speed, constantly keeping it at the level of 299792,458 kmps.
In the light of this study, the term ‘dark energy’ is, to say the least, inappropriate as it may be associated with a dark blonde. It seems that the best solution would be a return to the name ‘ether’, which would be attributed with all the properties of dark energy. This way we will also pay tribute to those who were right, that is the physicists of the eighteenth century.
An atom generates a quantum, but after the ‘act of birth it abandons its child’ and does not have any influence on its further fate. Dark energy takes care of it. From this point, the quantum belongs to ‘a different world’, the world of dark energy and this energy gives it the speed c and maintains it.
The second law of the quanta world says that all the quanta are made of the constant length of strings of energy, of the constant length of field lines, that is, of the constant amount of matter.
Both of these laws can be generalised with the statement that the basis for the existence of the quanta world is the constancy of the quanta kinetic energy.
The formula known as is not right, because being the corpuscle quantum of energy, which always moves at a constant speed, can not have different kinetic energies. This formula violates the basis of physics, but physicists for over a hundred of years have not seen anything wrong in it.
The quantum of energy is an eternally moving in space and eternally vibrating tuning fork. This tuning fork always moves at a constant speed c, whereas its vibration frequencies may be different. If it hits us, then how we will feel the impact depends on the frequency of its vibration, its power, but not on its kinetic energy. That is why, the gamma radiation quantum devastates our body, whereas the quantum of radio radiation does not do us any harm. That is why, the quantum of UV radiation knocks the electrons from a metal surface, whereas the quantum of IR radiation is not able to do that.
Whilst determining the Planck constant, Milikan measured the energy of the electrons knocked from the metal depending on the quantum vibration frequency (power), and not depending on the quanta energy. The kinetic energy of these quanta has always been the same, and that is Milikan who, after his experience, should have calculated it as the Planck constant. It would be given in joules, and it would have the value of 6,62 x 10-34 J . Since at that time it was very wrongly assumed that the kinetic energy of knocked electrons is the result of the kinetic energy of energy quanta, then Milikan calculated a completely inexplicable Planck constant with the dimension of . Unluckily, the dimension , after being written out into the prime factors, makes physical sense (this is the dimension of angular momentum) which reinforced the physicists in their false belief that they are on the right track. Thus arose the claim that “every elementary particle has its own internal angular momentum, which in any case should not be associated with the classic notion of angular momentum, and it should not be asked what actually is this own internal angular momentum.”
A quantum vibrating at the frequency of 1 Hz has power of 6,62 x 10-34 W (it is like a flying hammer), whereas a quantum vibrating at the frequency of 1 MHz has power which is a million times greater 6,62 x 10-28 W (it is like a flying pneumatic hammer). However, both of the quanta within one second make the same way which is 299 792 458 m and they have the same kinetic energy which equals 6,62 x 10-34 J . The quantum vibrating at the frequency of 1 Hz is not a wave of the length of ~300 Mm, and the quantum vibrating at the frequency of 1 MHz is not a wave of the length of ~300 m. Both of the quanta are corpuscles and their lengths, in the sense shown in Fig. 1, are slightly different (they are given in femtometres at the most).
10. The structure of the microworld.
The corpuscular, dark energy fills the Universe. One-dimensional dark energy corpuscles are in eternal, constant movement; they collide with each other. In between the collisions they move in the vacuum, all at the same speed. These corpuscles of energy have always existed.
Two-dimensional quanta of energy are ‘immersed’ in dark energy. They are made of field lines, force lines, energy strings. They are short, flat, two-dimensional springs. Quanta are in a constant motion, they collide with each other and, as a result, they vibrate, oscillate, pulsate. Dark energy generates and maintains this constant movement of quanta. This is done in a way that during a break between two quanta collisions, dark energy does not allow to reduce the quanta speed, keeping the speed at the constant level of several hundred million meters per second (exactly 299792458 m/s). The vibrating quanta of energy give the effect of heat, the intensity of their oscillation gives the effect of temperature.
Three-dimensional atoms are “immersed” in the eternally colliding and vibrating quanta. Atoms constantly collide with each other. Quanta induce and maintain the constant collisions. They do it in such a way that at a certain own power (temperature) in a break between two collisions of atoms, they complement an energy loss of atoms, while keeping the speed of atoms at a constant level of several hundred thousand meters per second.
Colloidal particles can be ‘immersed’ in the eternally colliding atoms of a given body. The colloidal particles are in a constant movement and they collide with each other. The atoms of a given body induce and maintain these constant collisions. They do it in a way that in a break between two collisions of colloidal particles, they complement an energy loss of particles, while keeping the speed of these particles at a level of a few meters per second.
Onwards there is a simple way to the origin of life.
In the above sequence of dependencies, an estimation of two quantities is missing – these are the moving speeds of dark energy particles and their sizes (lengths). Let us try to determine roughly these quantities.
With the decrease in size of the matter particles (colloidal particle > atom > quantum of energy > particle of dark energy), the speed of movement of each of them increases. Approximating this dependency, we can assume that the speed of movement of dark energy particles should be an order of magnitude higher than the speed of energy quanta, that is, it should be several billion meters per second. Following this reasoning we can be tempted to determine the size of dark energy particles. It seems that it should be a few orders of magnitude smaller than the size of energy-electron quantum.
Then the following sequence of dependencies would be valid:
AN ELEMENTARY, ETERNALLY EXISTING FORM OF MATTER WHICH FILLS THE UNIVERSE IS DARK ENERGY PARTICLES. (ETHER).
QUANTA OF ENERGY ARE MADE OF DARK ENERGY PARTICLES.
QUANTA OF ENERGY ARE TRANSFOMED INTO MASS ELECTRONS AND POSITRONS.
PROTONS ARE MADE OF ELECTRONS AND POSITRONS.
PROTONS AND ELECTRONS (NEUTRALISED PROTONS) FORM AN ATOMS.
ALL OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED FORMS OF MATTER ARE IN MOTION.
DARK ENERGY PARTICLES WERE, ARE AND ALWAYS WILL BE IN MOTION.
DARK ENERGY PARTICLES ARE THE MOTION DRIVING FORCE OF ENERGY QUANTA.
QUANTA OF ENERGY ARE THE MOTION DRIVING FORCE OF ELECTRONS, POSITRONS AND ATOMS.